Lenticular in Particular

Background: What is Lenticular Imaging?

DPLenticular Ltd produce materials for the Lenticular Industry. http://www.dplenticular.com Their website is an excellent resource for information about the products, materials and the processes of getting to the final image. It is easier to grasp the process and materials from this source than my attempts to give you information. For an excellent video see <www.lenticular-europe.com> for a hands-on explanation/demonstration with Jake Purchase.

There is a lot of information online with YouTube or similar, and a FaceBook page dedicated to Lenticular Arts and Artists. In simple terms it is image making, a printing technique that produces a form of animation as pattern, spatial modes, or morphing affects.

Lenticular images have essentially 3 formats of production technique with subtle differences in production and outcomes. But the materials and processes remain much the same. I have known of the process for at least 40 years and studied it more closely whilst doing my academic research into print whilst I was teaching at Cardiff School of Art. For me, the process was already understood.

In the Picture: I met Patrick Boyd RCA at his exhibition ‘Macro Mayhem’ in London earlier this year (2020) at his exhibition of Lenticular Photography at 286 Gallery, Earls Court, London. The owner and curator Jonathan Ross http://www.jrholocollection.com is a collector of Holographic and Lenticular artworks and includes Boyd’s work. The exhibition showed the collection on one floor and Boyd’s work on another. I work with Holographic Foiling as Gilding and through this idea we connect with the gallery.

Patrick Boyd RCA ‘Poetry’

If I am successful in my bid, the gallery has offered us a joint exhibition. Putting new work into the public domain is considered a success in research terms.








Patrick Boyd RCA ‘Tin Can’

Lenticular Printing is another new departure for me. I aim to work with the printed image and the surface aspect being a moving image; albeit slowly! In simple terms, a Print-Cut-Fold-Fix, like a form of paper cut-out.

Covid 19 closures & online ‘Graphic Sculpture’ – My artwork involving Kiln Formed Glass was brought to a standstill by the current ‘lockdown’ with the closure of institutes and suppliers. In order to continue with a safe practice I contacted Patrick Boyd to see if he and I might make some of my work together entirely online, using his printing equipment and his tacit understanding of the lenticular process. I wanted to make some work with ‘Print’ as the primary concept and ‘Graphic Sculpture’ being the outcome. We made an agreement and we are slowly getting our act together familiarising ourselves with the work and requirements. I am accustomed to working with others and enjoy the process.

Lenticular Angle of view for Left – Right




Above Left: ‘Lenny’ is a logo character. Lenstar is a Trade Name from DPLenticular. The image shows real depth and movement with the layers clearly expressed as animation. The camera image below is from the same company but reveals a very different visual photo-realistic appearance.

Above Right: The Lenticular Lens material is ‘striated’ with lines, either vertical or horizontal that remind me of the ‘warp & weft’ structure of woven fabric. The stripy effect is a characteristic of the lenticular medium. Many of my holographic painting, though done in a different method and medium have similar visual characteristics.

Left: A Still photo Right: A Lenticular image of the same photo





I am using the term to describe low relief objects that have a 2.5 dimension or semi-3-D in their presentation. I have been working in low-relief for some time but always in a standard craft medium; clay, metal, glass, textiles, styrene, etc, and sometimes with applied print. I want to develop a form of printed images, that animate the surface aspect of the objects. Its about seeing images bound up in objects, for instance, printed images on clay tiles, etc. I have been interested in optical objects, objects that adjust your perception of images or illusions of object / space relationships. I really enjoy the surface depth illusion within the flat plane of the material. It handles light as a graphic material, anamorphic perspective, drawing, animation, all sorts of ideas are addressed within the concept of the medium. Where I might differ from Patrick Boyd is my interest in arriving at an ‘installation’ concept; of the images as objects.

Through my chance encounter with Patrick Boyd and the concurrent Covid19 difficulties with lockdown, I thought it a good opportunity to make the decision to move my interest to the lenticular medium and working online. A situation where the cycle of making is shared between two persons and one technology; two artists prepared to share experiences and ideas and make changes in studio and creative terms.


Having a notion to start with helps. I have practiced modelling concepts with paper prints. I began with a simple visual conundrum, here the RED Moebious Strip. [Image below – Top left] I want to have very simple beginnings and work towards some broader concepts when I have some experience.

The Moebious Strip is defined as a single sided, single edged form that occupies 3-dimensional space. It shares a familiar experience as an object but is a conundrum in terms of its surface behaviour. The samples shown are not models for the project but samples of the thinking behind them. The relationship with lenticular images is purely notional as it is difficult to describe lenticular behaviour without actually using them. The image above is covered in graphic forms as patterns derived from the Tamil Alphabet.

Samples of Graphic Sculpture:

I am showing some samples that illustrate my understanding of the terms ‘Graphic’ and ‘Sculpture’ combined.

This monumental 2.5 D relief on the Front Elevation at Toulouse University was manufactured by Renkli in Germany, from digital images and moulding technology created from digital drawing and routing and rubber moulds. Each panel is 3metres X 1.5metres and cast in Glass Fibre Cement (GFC). The images are the product of a low relief engraving procedure and are entirely dependent on sunlight and shadow to be seen at all. During the day the images may appear to ‘disappear’ from view. There is no colour applied but simply the colour of the material itself. The mural is dedicated to scientific discovery.

The gravure process of the Glass Fibre Cement Print reveals a believable photographic quality, even a sense of colour through its tonal range. The engraved image is composed of vertical lines in varying depths and widths. The changes in depth and width produce the shadows that are the images. For me, the Lenticular process has a close connection that shares these vertical patterns as a principle format and also remind me of the ‘warp’ of woven cloth.

This sample (above) shows an inset image of the original Black & White photograph and the GFC version on the right. The vertical engraving with shadows can be seen in the surface. The images become clear when the viewer moves in front of the actual panel and seems to be animated by changing its appearance.

 More on GRAPHIC SCULPTURECRAIG-MARTIN+1978+Hammer,+Sandle,+Sardine+Tin-W&D-

Two Wall Drawings by Michael Craig-Martin demonstrate the concepts of solid planar and transparent linear forms expressed as outlines. The drawings are applied black tape adhered to the walls surface.Left: Solid and Opaque Forms apparently stacked one above or below another.                   

Right: Linear and Transparent forms integrated in a haphazard fashion become quite ambiguous in the ‘reading’ of their location.  

 MICHAEL-CRAIG-MARTIN-Umbrella-W&D-The inferred perspective of the orange objects form as drawing denies the complete flatness of the actual metal object.  Appearing solid yet simultaneously transparent, the orange colour reinforces the flatness and contradiction of the illusion as a solid object. JOSEF-ALBERS-TRANSARENCY-EFFECT-W&D-

Left: Spatial ambiguity and comprehension of surface material are seen in this colour study from Josef Albers’ book ‘The Interaction of Colour’. All the colours are separate entities laying next to each other. The spatial ‘push & pull’ effect is an action of the colour / form relationship.Right: The same or similar approach in Michael Craig-Martin’s sculpture with a linear drawing overlaying the colours. The coloured forms project shadows on the wall creating an ambiguity of meaning as solid or transparent material forms collide.

 NELSON-MENDELA-SCULPTURE-W&D--Nelson Mandela Sculpture: An almost photographic effect derived from the chaotic looking collection of columns on the left with a quite random appearance. Like the works above, the point of view is critical for this concept/image to work at all.  The linear aspect is not too different from the way Lenticular images function.  CONTEXT-SAMPLE-GRC-W&D-Left: This Renckli sample shows an image of the original continuous tone Black & White photograph.

Right: the Glass Reinforced Cement (GRC) version on the right. The vertical engraving with shadows can be seen in the surface. The images become clear when the viewer moves in front of the actual panel and seems to be animated by changing its appearance. It is entirely dependent upon the sunlight. There are no applied colours to the cement. On a dull day there in not much to see. This is the dynamic I like very much, the movement and impermanence of the image. It again shows similarities to the Lenticular process. It also has an aspect of Digital Weaving about it.  Like the Nelson Mandela image above, similar processes have similar outcomes.


RENCKLI: A facade in Toulouse, France created by Reckli from digital CAD files as a positive engraving for each panel. The images are copied into a rubber-like material and the cement version is cast from the rubber mould. The photographic impression is an action of the sunlight on the surface of the cement. Seen up close the vertical linear aspect is very evident.  


Above: Sample images of Vectorised Graphic Patterns available readymade ‘off-the-shelf’ from the Renckli catalogue.  The darker the lines the deeper the engraving, the darker the shadow. My painter/printmaker background shows me this as etching or engraving.  The 3-d illusions are simple constructs in themselves. 

 JOSE-ROSA-MADEIRA-POEM-W&D-Graphic Sculpture found in Portugal.  Water-jet cut Cor-Ten Steel. The text is read from within the space.  The outline shape is an image of the poets profile. 5.-'ON-A-CLEAR-DAY-ETC'-CMYK-W&D-Art on the Dam: A project in Portugal for artworks to be installed on every dam.  This example is 63 metres long, the letters are over 2 metres high.  It is a song title but I don’t know why it is in English?  BICYCLE-W&D-Flat objects in space share an illusion of form.  The position of the viewer and the particulars of the making process determine the outcome.     

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Tessa Jowell Health Centre Mural

Tessa Jowell Health Centre &

Dulwich Picture Gallery Project

Site Visit

Shown above is the site of the commissioned artwork.  25 individual glass plates forming a continuous glass balustrade surrounding the first floor atrium of the building.  

Observations: Two sides (‘A’ & ‘C’ below) are opposite Windows, another faces a wall (‘D’) and the fourth (‘B’) a room and open floor space. A corridor runs around the whole balustrade.  The glass is one height throughout but different in widths on each side of the balustrade. All the glass is 12mm thick. It is not obvious from the provided photographs that the balustrade forms a truncated oblong in plan view.

As this information is not expressed in the drawings or photos the visit became a key experience to extracting information that would impact upon costing, design strategy and Installation.  The DPG helpline was very supportive in providing some extra information. The site visit clarified everything.


Drawing: Below – showing the smallest width in glass size. I now have all the details including the interval size between each sheet of glass and supports and the full height from the floor plane.

The Proposed Medium: PVC Glass Film

This is a super choice of material.  It is suggested that the artwork has a 3 year life-span and this medium allows for simple installation and replacement when the time comes.  I have previously done research into the possibilities of this material as it is printable, self-adhesive yet removable, can be cut into shape, printed in multiple colour, and is now available as a completely transparent medium. It is often seen as a semi-translucent material which is often cut into patterns and shapes and applied directly to the glass. Any cut-outs have ‘show-through’ where the glass can be seen through as required. The designs are often cut and parts removed, a process called ‘weeding’ removing parts as required, generally the film remains whole and covers all the glass surface. This may be a H&S factor for using the material.

Some Sample images:

Printed and Cut Film on Glass at Sainsbury’s Super Store, Vauxhall. Obscured Opalescent film with orange print and logo with shapes cut out revealing the kitchen behind the glass. Some lettering and the rolling pin image have a negative aperture with a printed positive image. I like the busy shapes seen in the background.

Below: The Royal Society of Medicine, 1 Wimpole Street  London  W1G 0AE

The society’s logo in opalescent film without colour, on the double glass entrance doors

Starbuck’s on Sainsbury’s site, Vauxhall.

This film is applied in multiple layers overlapping each other. Whilst the designs are ‘cut n weeded’ the film remains whole and is firmly fixed to the outside of the glass. A most unusual and very decorative effect!


I am excited by the challenge of the chosen medium, Film on Glass.  I have looked into this material and its application some time ago. My recent enquiries tell me how much it has developed with the colour printing methods and the changes to the substrate.  It is much more flexible in it’s application process and has the addition of White as a print colour which permits the use of Opaque and Transparent and Translucent images providing a wider repertoire of possibilities. There are design issues with the ‘Back-to-Front’ nature of ‘see through’ being visible from both sides. Any Text or Writing may need to be expressed in reverse and needs careful planning, if that’s the case.

INSPIRATION:  from the DPG Collections / Exhibitions.

My concept of using 3 exhibitions as my starting point for my design strategy is most relevant to the overall scheme of things.  Choosing M.C. Escher, Eric Ravilious, and Claude Flight and the Grosvenor School exhibitions shows a connectivity between them is visual terms. Each artist is excellent at creating images with strong graphic structure, sometimes verging on the totally abstract yet clearly based on ‘things seen’, astute observation and graphic language brought together as style.

Taking a sample image concept from M.C.Escher’s exhibition, the ‘Metamorphosis’ series of prints and drawings, suggested that I could link all the planes of glass into a single narrative. A constantly evolving image sequence that can be linked with a linear format or design element. Each primary image may develop and fill the plane of glass and the linear aspect crosses all of them, that’s my concept in a nutshell. 

M.C.Escher: Part of a ‘Metamorphosis’ series showing a continuity of image and scale in the side to side reading of the images. This single image is divided x 6. This is not to copy the image in any way but to demonstrate how the image can carry over 6 planes. Or perhaps not? Here it is fluid and simple to read in Black & White terms.

The 6 panels of side ‘B’ ? These are random [not part of my application] images placed in the same scale as each other with opaque spectral colours. The horizontal colour changing banding may be over all 25 sheets of glass? I have become interested in the graphic strength of the images, how solid or transparent they are or can be. There are clear views to the other side of the space. Using both sides in different ways has distinct possibilities.


Translucent Film on Glass is a common sight in public buildings whether as advertising or warning. The most common being the ‘eye level’ line of dots or squares on glass doorways and any large screen of glass in the public domain, as it is obligatory.  They can be seen in the online photographs of the mural site.

As an art medium it is not so common, probably even very unusual?  My latest research and development (R&D) is to examine how and when Colour and Opacity may come together, being the antithesis of the materials purposes.


My personal enquiries reflect on my artworks made on Film as an Illustration medium. I have experience of making images on Clear Photocopy Film, drawing in outline on one side and in colour on the other.  Looking at my own samples I recall using White Acrylic on the rear, overlaying White over the back of the coloured ink, this enriched the colour, brush marks, textures, etc, as deliberate acts of drawing. The images floated on the clear background material. The subject was Shadow Puppets, and the article considered the transparent or translucent material the puppets were made from; Dyed and Varnished Camel Skin and the story telling aspect of puppetry and the Puppeteer.  Each sheet was photographed separately and used creatively in the designing process.

Left: Each puppet is drawn on a different layer of film, including the background colours and the portrait of the puppeteer.  The two Blue Colours are also separate sheets of film. The Graphic Designer made a great playful use of the freedom the method gave to the images. The puppets individually appeared amongst the text as well as in this image. 

Puppeteers of Turkey are revered  and hold high social status. They continue a long tradition of story telling. The narratives always have some form of wisdom, politics, or family advice, etc, expressed in comical and simple language. 

How this could work on Glass Film & Print:

Below: ‘Karagoz’  The image of 3 characters and desk shown in the background would be printed in Full Colour on the film. The image is then overlaid with an identical outline shape in Solid White.  This in turn, is overlaid with another copy of the first Full Colour printing over the Solid White. The outcome is that the image is seen as opaque colour from both sides of the glass. The composition is supported on a Clear Film Background.  This process would increase the creative possibilities of the material and its content. 

The background colour shown here is to see the White Solid as a colour and is not included in this design.

The schematic image is showing the working out of the printing system as layers in perspective.

Below:   A mock up of the effect on a Glass Balustrade

Minus the background colour!

My proposal would not include the Puppet images but are used here as a demonstration of the technique and using my understanding of contemporary Clear Film production methods and my Illustration techniques.

The Clear Film is applied to the whole surface of the glass. In this instance it would be printed on two separate pieces of film, one for each piece of glass. This image also demonstrates that the narrative is not limited by the glass shape, size or area. 

My research is in testing the medium so that designs can be produced to exploit the techniques and materials potential and application to this site-specific scenario.

New Printmaking Techniques:

The Quilt Maker’s Garden‘ A3 on Translucent Synthetic paper, printed both sides.

New Printmaking Techniques:

Fortuitously, my latest print is on Translucent Synthetic Paper, printed on both sides with 4 CMYK colours on the back or ‘Verso’ and the ‘Front’ printed solely in CMYK Black outline. In this sample above, the Colour Image and Lines are two separate artworks, one each side, viewed through the translucent material. The ‘Front’ outline patterns have ‘Holographic Foil’ applied that reflect pure spectral colours that change by way of the environmental lighting and the movement and location of the viewer. The impermanence of the colour is the subject; that colour is governed by light, the environment and perception and is not a property of the actual material. It is conceptually quite close to my proposal for the ‘Illustrated’ Glass balustrade mural.

The Front:: Black outline patterns have ‘Holographic Foil’ applied that reflects spectral colours along and from the lines.  In a ‘Heat Press’ the sheet Holographic foil adheres to the Black ink outlines.

The Front: Left: A detail showing the Holographic Foil adhered to the Black outlines. The black laser powder melts with heat and the sheet of holographic foil is overlaid before passing through a Heat Press when it adheres only to the lines. The outline patterns reflect spectral colours along and from the lines.  Colours are quite animated, changing with the movement of the viewer or the light, or both. The notion of transparency is evident and is part of my study of transparent materials.

The background image is a Felt Wall-hanging made some years ago; here recycled as an image for the print. The background design is all Tamil Type Alphabet and made with multiple layers of felt cloth. Layering has been present in my work for many years.


Over the last 2 years I have been studying Kiln Fired Glass at Kensington & Chelsea College, [now Morley College]. This is part of my enquiry into Glass as a transparent medium and part of a wider use of transparent and translucent materials in my Colour Research in printmaking and painting. 

Covid closed this avenue of research until now. I have re-enrolled this month and return to the glass studio in late April to develop and complete my new work with applied Mirror Finishing processes.

The glass artworks are all low relief objects made using the re-cycled moulds of my aluminium artwork made for the Kings Cross ‘Text Wall’ Mural.  Being transparent and polished, glass changes the meaning of the design and its ‘reading’ as an object.  This is all new territory for me, and perhaps why I am excited to be making a proposal for this mural competition. I have made many works in glass over the years.


4 Samples of Kiln Fired Glass made with recycled moulds from the Kings Cross ‘Text Wall’ mural and Mirror Finished in Silver, Bronze and Chrome.  Sold in ‘Glass at the Forge’ Gallery Show of 14 Glass makers in 2020.

Below :

‘Lacuna’: (unfinished due to Covid19). Left: Images are seen as ‘inside’ the glass and Right: the glass reflecting light from its frontal surface. The edges are Shot-Blasted with a radius to create the translucent quality. They will be attached to the steel background with magnets.  All the moulds for these artworks are recycled from the Kings Cross ‘Text Wall’ mural.

Other Works in Recycled Media or Concept:

The images are made in a variety of materials and techniques. In the above array, Left to Right, is Felt, [made in Turkey], Kiln Fired Recycled Glass, Decorated Sheet Glass, (Enamel, Gold Leaf, Shot blasted, (both sides) & Mirror Finished. The 4th piece is the 3rd artwork reflecting Black cloth. The lower array is Watercolour with Holographic Gilding, and 3 ceramic bowls from the same mould with different clays and glazing technique. My first works in Ceramics.



I am considering the use of Dichroic Film which has a dyed coating that is receptive to light and allows light in and out in different directions. In the TJHC context, this could provide a simple but very colourful solution, yet a mysterious medium to speculate upon its effect. The Sheet material producing colour all on its own!

Seen in the escalator sample below all the colours are from one type of film colour-way. The changes of iridescent colour occur according to the position and movements of the viewer. It is a simple but quite animated and affective experience. Its use on a glass walled escalator suggests its own possibilities for the mural.

No two people perceive the same colour experience at the same time.  To be able to see through one layer of film to another layer increases colourful possibilities. Even reflections change colour. The angle the film is applied to the glass surface will deliver different colour experiences. 

Images from DOROTAPE:

The material needs to be seen to be understood. Reactive pure colour in its best form.

Dichroic Film applied to a sculpture: Colour changes with movement of the viewer

All the colour is from 2 film types applied to plastic sheet material

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